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Pura Besakih is the paramount Hindu temple on Bali. Located high on the slopes of the volcano Mt Agung, it has developed over more than a thousand years into a great complex of 22 separate temples, the largest and central being Pura Penataran Agung. The annual cycle of more than seventy rituals, which symbolically link the temples into a whole, culminates in the centenary ceremony called Ekadasa Rudra (last held in 1979). The temple complex, state-supported at least since the fifteenth century, has undergone a series of architectural and ritual changes. This study combines an analysis of textual and historical sources with the fieldwork methods of anthropology in creating a unified interpretation of this great temple. David J. Stuart-Fox was educated at the University of Sydney and the Australian National University in Canberra. He is currently librarian at the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden.