This book was written with basically two objectives in mind. The first one was to provide a comprehensive description of the Indonesian family planning program during the New Order regime of Suharto. The second to explain the fertility transition that took place in Indonesia during the same period. The rationale behind the first objective is the rather unique character of the Indonesian family planning program as a national program, being part of both the New OrderÕs development effort-and-rhetoric and peoples everyday life. The extent to which it became part of peoples and especially womens everyday life in various ways, sets the Indonesian family planning program apart from comparable programs in Asia. The second objective is an ambitious one. From all the theoretical and anecdotal literature on fertility transition, particularly in Asia, it is clear that it is a complex phenomenon that cannot be captured in a simple model. Nevertheless, the dramatic fertility decline that took place in Indonesia during 1968-1998 begs for an attempt at explanation. In this book, fertility decline is placed against a background of social, cultural and economic change, and is related to the way the family planning program was designed and implemented. The question of the exact contribution of the family planning program to fertility decline is addressed but can never be fully answered. This is because the impact of the family planning program cannot be isolated from the influence of other factors, such as, for example, cultural change leading to a rise of age at marriage, womens higher levels of educational attainment, increased family income, and so on. As the book shows, Indonesia provides a rich context for studying fertility decline and its determinants. The contributors come from several countries and have different backgrounds. They have in common their professional involvement with family planning, fertility and social change in Indonesia and their love for the country and its people.